According to research, most people have malocclusion. However, most of them do not even know about the presence of a problem, and they come to the orthodontist only with the problem of “uneven teeth”. But the wrong bite is not always accompanied by a violation of the aesthetics of the dentition. Bite or occlusion is the position of the teeth and jaw when closed. A physiological or normal bite is when the teeth in the dentition have tight contacts, the chewing surfaces of the antagonist teeth (teeth on the opposite jaw) uniformly close together, the upper incisors overlap the lower ones by 1/3.
An incorrect bite can take 2 forms: dental and skeletal.
In the case of a dentition occlusion, pathological closure is formed due to the improper arrangement of the teeth, their abnormal size or deficiency, as well as the improper development of the dentoalveolar process – that part of the oral cavity where the teeth grow from. With such a bite, the patient’s jaws, as a rule, have the correct physiological size and location. If the jaw sizes or the position of the jaws cause incorrect closure of the teeth, then such a bite is called skeletal. Skeletal abnormalities can occur in an increased (macrognathia) or reduced (micrognathia) jaw size, in pushing it forward or backward (retrognathia). Skeletal bite is usually more difficult to correct than dental abnormalities, in especially severe cases it is impossible without the help of surgery.
An incorrect bite can be a combination of skeletal and dental abnormalities, and one type can be a consequence of another: due to the incorrect position of the jaws, the teeth grow crooked, and vice versa, the incorrect position of the teeth leads to the forced position of the jaws and the bite is fixed in the skeletal form.
Causes of malocclusion
A malocclusion is usually the result of a combination of causes. For all types of improper occlusion, there are a number of common occurrence factors.
- Genetic predisposition – transmission of dentoalveolar anomalies from parents.
- Frequent or constant oral breathing, if normal nose breathing is difficult or impossible due to ENT diseases (rhinitis, sinusitis, curvature of the septum). When breathing through the mouth, the tongue, jaw and lips are in a non-physiological position and constant tension, which affects the growth of the jaw, alveolar bone and the position of the teeth.
- Bad habits of childhood that interfere with the adequate growth of teeth, bones, and the position of the spine. These include: long sucking on a dummy, finger or foreign objects, the habit of touching the growing tooth with the tongue or hands, incorrect posture in the sitting position.
- A lack of calcium and other nutrients during fetal development and in childhood negatively affects bone growth.
- Improper bottle-feeding with a wide opening. If the baby does not strain the muscles during feeding (as happens with breastfeeding), then the growth of the jaws is not stimulated.
- Dental problems with milk and removable bite. These include all factors that violate physiological closure: over-completeness or incomplete number of teeth, earlier tooth loss or decay, disproportionately large or small teeth, lack of space in the dentition.
- Improper prosthetics are a factor in malocclusion in adults.